This chapter describes a framework of the TOEFL Junior tests, which were introduced recently by Educational Testing Service (ETS) for young English language learners worldwide. It includes the key elements of the TOEFL Junior test design framework and its development process. The generic name, TOEFL Junior, will be used in our framework document inclusively to refer to the two TOEFL Junior tests–the paper-based TOEFL Junior Standard test and the computer-delivered TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test–when the discussion applies equally to both tests. Identifying the characteristics of target language use (TLU) domains or situations is a key step towards supporting the claim that test takers' performance on test tasks relates to their expected performance in real-life communicative situations. TOEFL Junior assesses the degree to which students have the listening skills required to function in English-medium instructional environments. The chapter presents both theoretical and practical considerations that guided decisions through the TOEFL Junior development process.