This chapter describes the field test study performed for the TOEFL Primary Reading and Listening tests. It includes a description of the field test study design, statistical analyses conducted, estimation of psychometric properties of the tests, and how the empirical findings informed the final test design for the TOEFL Primary tests. The chapter presents the field study under conditions that would best resemble future operational conditions with regard to population representativeness and test administration characteristics. It focuses on describing the establishment of band levels and scale scores. The chapter describes a field test study performed on the TOEFL Primary Reading and Listening tests. It reviews the process from field-test form construction to test forms administration to data collection to statistical analyses. The field test study for TOEFL Primary Reading and Listening tests yielded valuable information in a number of respects for the development of technically sound test forms as well as preliminary validity evidence for intended uses of the tests.