This chapter focuses on a small-scale, exploratory study that examined strategies used by young learners of different proficiency levels when taking the TOEFL Primary listening and reading comprehension items. It presents the study in the context of the prototyping study of the TOEFL Primary tests. The chapter reviews selected studies whose results have direct implications on assessment development and validation. Little empirical research is available to examine the strategies young English language learners use in an assessment context. As a result, knowledge of the response processes engaged in by young learners is limited. The chapter argues that almost half of the learners had experiences in taking various standardized English language tests designed for young English learners. It suggests that further empirical research will be conducted, investigating the generalizability of the current findings on young English language learners' use of strategies in assessment contexts.