This chapter outlines the historical interdependence over the sourcing of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) and, indeed, of worldwide agricultural production and associated inequity in the global food system. It argues that one of the important governance challenges of food security, nay food system, in the twenty-first century is the need for a proactive de-escalation of the contemporary monocultural trend. From a food systems approach, then, multifarious considerations emerge, especially those that are hardly addressed under capitalist and market-oriented monocultural industrial agricultural production paradigm. The replication of monocultural capital-driven agricultural models in ILCs or among peasant farming communities in the south, for example, the Philippines, Mexico, parts of China and Africa, has not produced the same results as it did in the West. Under the present design of global agricultural economy, ILCs at the historic centers of origin of crop genetic diversity have little control over their food and dietary preferences.