This chapter provides a brief overview of classroom-based language research by summarizing some of the most commonly used methods and procedures. It reviews some of the critical issues in second language classroom research methodology. The chapter discusses practical and logistical concerns and ways of addressing them when conducting research in classroom contexts. It highlights a description of some recent empirical work conducted in second language classrooms, where methodologies used by the researchers. The chapter explores future directions in the thriving and central domain of second language acquisition (SLA) research. It highlights eight key concepts in the classroom-based research paradigm that provide quickly accessible information, intended to benefit experienced as well as novice researchers in the field. The key concepts are: quasi-experimental studies, observation, introspective measures, stimulated recall interviews, action research, aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI), delayed posttest and the Hawthorne Effect. Several recent studies have utilized observation protocols to categorize classroom language data.