Moral emotions are intimately tied to the self. This connection has been noted by numerous authors across disciplines (cf. Kristja´nsson, 2010). Blasi (1983) pointed out that feelings of guilt indicate a serious fracture in the self. In a similar vein, Montada (1993) argued that moral emotions are the most important indicator for the presence of personally binding moral norms. More recently, Tracy and Robins (2004) presented an appraisal approach to self-evaluative moral emotions that included the self-importance of values and goals as an

essential appraisal component. Extending on Lewis’ attributional perspective (Lewis, 2000), Tracy and Robins maintained that values and goals need to be considered relevant to one’s self or identity in order to elicit self-evaluative emotions. It is, thus, the self-relevance of values that renders self-incongruence emotionally important.