This chapter reviews the background to Smart City planning in China, and looks at Smart City implementation prerequisites, paying particular attention to establishment of an appropriate Smart City government actor constellation, and provision of appropriate governmental implementation tools. The chapter also discusses the governance structure for implementing Smart Cities in China and addresses appropriate actor constellations. The concept of Smart Cities has been widely accepted by all levels of government in many countries around the world, including China. The development of urban infrastructure projects, including significant Smart City elements in their construction, has been implemented in China since around 2010 and the Smart City technology market is booming. In January 2013, China's Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development (MOHURD) formally announced the first list of 90 national pilot Smart Cities. China's rapid transformation is unprecedented in human history but has unsettled traditional society and radically transformed landscapes, via urbanization and intensification.