The chapter is presented in four further sections. The next section describes key features of private rental market system of housing provision, which is based on small-scale landlordism in housing which is indistinguishable from the broader housing stock. This is followed by a section that outlines policy and program settings and initiatives, which shape investment in the private rental market and other initiatives which potentially could focus attention on improved energy and water efficiency. It then focuses on landlord and real estate agent roles in the private rental market based on the interviews and survey, followed by discussion of the key findings. Finally it presents a concluding discussion of the findings and possibilities for a more strategic approach to retrofitting private rental housing. It also focuses on rental housing stock owned by private landlords, in a cool temperate climate zone where residents commonly use energy intensive mechanical cooling and heating to realise their comfort expectations.