Culture is one of the most problematic notions in the humanities in general and in Translation and Interpreting Studies. At the same time if is one of the central concepts. A discussion of why culture is one of the key notions and why, despite all problems of defining and describing it, it can be considered a success story in the crossdisciplinary terminological apparatus of the social sciences is offered drawing on classical publications in anthropology and sociology. The chapter takes stock of the main lines of defining the concept and addresses such fundamental questions as how to demarcate cultural and social aspects of translation and culturally and sociologically informed approaches in translation research. The history of the term and concept is presented by analyzing the most influential contributions in anthropology and sociology and in Translation and Interpreting Studies, notably the Skopos and Polysystem theories. The focus in the discussion is on the relationship of culture and translation. Translation is shown as both an intracultural mechanism and an indispensable factor in intercultural communication. Translation helps societies mediate between individuals and culture. Translation is a powerful mechanism of cultural evolution. Translation is also a way for different societies communicate and learn from each other. The chapter offers a discussion of methods of research into the relationship of culture and translation and recommendations for practice of such a research. Finally, future directions of research are outlined and further readings are recommended.