Albrechts (2013, 2015) offers the possibility of a radical practice of strategic spatial planning that could challenge the existing socio-spatial order, and suggests ‘co-production’ as the mode of engagement. The idea of co-production, which was famously introduced by Elinor Ostrom, describes how incorporating the ideas, resources and practical engagement of actors outside an agency may transform both the actions of the agency and the outcomes of these action (see, for example, Ostrom, 1996). As Watson (2014) indicates, however, the use of the term has evolved and diversified, with Albrechts (2015, p. 515) defining his notion of co-production in planning as:

a collective endeavour, with citizens as a part of action not its object and as a combination of a needs-based and rights-based approach … an inclusive and multivocal arena, that is grounded in a deeper understanding of the complex dynamics of urban and regional relations where value systems can be articulated, local and scientific knowledge can be combined on an equal base, shared strategic conviction can grow, and conflicts are reframed in a less antagonistic manner.