This chapter begins by sketching the historical development of the policy area, and follows by an overview of its major analytical perspectives and insights. It discusses the limitations of the research perspectives adopted so far. There is consensus in the literature that European-level environmental policy started with the Paris Summit meeting of the heads of state and governments of the European Community in 1972. The Central and Eastern European countries' environmental policies were strongly shaped by the European Union (EU), even before their formal accession, in turn influencing their preferences in the Council in the post-accession phase. The chapter explores that member states have been willing to transfer legal competence to the supranational level for environmental governance. It concludes with some thoughts on why the study of EU environmental policy remains important and which research gaps continue to exist despite the wealth of research, which future work might want to address.