The grand bargain of the nuclear nonproliferation regime promises states without nuclear weapons access to peaceful nuclear technologies in exchange for their commitment to forgo nuclear weapons and accept safeguards against the misuse of nuclear technologies for weapons purposes. 2 This bargain dates from the 1950s promise of the United States, as part of the Atoms for Peace program, to allow unfettered access to peaceful nuclear technologies, with assurances against misuse. Other nuclear-capable countries, seeing potentially large commercial benefits, were already beginning to sell their nuclear wares abroad, providing recipient states with turnkey nuclear reactors, training, and expertise.