A great deal of scientic activity consists in constructing, comparing, and testing theories and associated models (TAMs) that are known to misrepresent the way the world actually is (M-TAMs).1 It is not controversial among scientists and even philosophers of science that many M-TAMs have epistemic value. The epistemic value of scientic theories and models is generally taken as coming in three kinds:

1 predictive power, 2 explanatory power, 3 heuristic power.