A great deal of scientific activity consists in constructing, comparing, and testing theories and associated models (TAMs) that are known to misrepresent the way the world actually is (M-TAMs). 1 It is not controversial among scientists and even philosophers of science that many M-TAMs have epistemic value. The epistemic value of scientific theories and models is generally taken as coming in three kinds:

predictive power,

explanatory power,

heuristic power.