This chapter introduces the components and depicts some of the dynamics of a coastal system in Quintana Roo, in which there is a strong human-nature relationship. It address how federal policies on tourism and fishing have resulted in shaping the geopolitical-administrative development of a social-ecological system located on the coast of Quintana Roo. In particular, coastal communities of Quintana Roo are dependent upon the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) for livelihoods. The communities Xcalak, Punta Allen and Mahahual are relatively small towns having 375, 630, and 920 inhabitants respectively. The chapter shows that all these community groups are pursuing proactive ways to create better conditions of living while seeking to retain access rights to local coastal resources. It is often noted that public policies on tourism development in Quintana Roo do not take into consideration the needs of local communities in terms of well-being and basic household services.