This chapter provides a brief overview of the evolution of human resource management (HRM) systems in three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. It focuses on employment relations and cultural contexts. The chapter discusses some dominant HRM practices, including recruitment and selection, training and development, and pay and reward practices. The employment relations context in Indonesia has long been dominated by politico-bureaucrats and corporate executives. Specifically, the government pursued a policy of deregulation and opened up several sectors to facilitate massive inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI). Labor unions have played a less important role in the Thai employment relations system. HRM departments have been unable to solve problems related to gender-, ethnicity-, and race-based discrimination in the workplace. These problems persist in Indonesia. Green HRM systems have been implemented in some organizations in Malaysia to promote cleaner sustainability strategies within organizations, leading to improved employee well-being and long-term organizational performance.