This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book identifies "continuities and changes" in the modern interactions between Africa and Asia. It shows, several challenges persist, for instance in the field of human rights as their disregard, in the case of BRICS, "is in fact part and parcel of their rise with Africa," particularly in the case of China. The book recognizes the need for a variety of research approaches from several policy areas to diminish competition between Asian (including South Korea) countries in Africa. It explains why Japan's past (Datsu-A ron or the departure from Asia during the Meiji Restoration in terms of de-Asianization to catch up with the West) still hinders its relations with Asia. The book demonstrates that the EU has developed an ability to advance a political and security agenda beyond the aid and trade role with Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP).