This chapter focuses on the relationship between aid and security in South Sudan in the period preceding and following the separation of Sudan in 2011, and explores the ways humanitarian agencies navigate the dynamics of governance and conflict. It shows that how many security concerns for humanitarian actors are located in, and affected by, the relationships between aid actors and authorities at different levels. The chapter also shows a diversity of approaches on the part of aid agencies for negotiating and maintaining these relationships for their security. It contributes to a perspective of security as a relational aspect of humanitarian aid, and suggests different domains for negotiating humanitarian access in insecure environments. The chapter highlights how aid is embedded in social contexts and is subject to local politics, agendas and interests. It discusses different approaches to manoeuvring insecure environments in the humanitarian arena of South Sudan during the recent interbellum.