Performance analysis is at the core of the coaching process in sport at all levels of performance. Coaches attempt to facilitate improvements in the future perform - ance of their athletes by investigating the key factors involved in the outcomes of recent games. This performance analysis involves analysing the observed outcomes of performances to understand the underlying causal mechanisms. Understanding the deeper structure of performances, particularly identifying the controllables – the key factors that are under the control of the athlete – is crucial in order for the coach to decide on the optimal intervention strategy to facilitate improved future performance. For example, what should be the training priorities in preparation for the next contest? What is the best tactical plan for the next contest? In the case of team sports, who should be selected to participate in the next contest? These are all critical decisions for a coach that may have a significant impact on the outcome of the next contest in which their athletes compete, and all of these coaching decisions can be informed by performance analysis.