Water charges and subsidies
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Water charges and subsidies book
By the time water service delivery involves handpumps, let alone sophisticated treatment and a network of pipes to distribute that water, it is clear that there are financial costs involved as well; initial costs for investment in plant and equipment (in addition to the costs of establishing and training village water committees in some parts of the world; communicating with customers about new developments or price increases in other parts of the world); and recurrent costs for operating pumping and treatment processes and minor maintenance. All of these costs have to be borne by society if water supply for public health is to be, at least, effective and sustainable (if not necessarily efficient or equitable in the first instance).