Through an interrogation of a new building in Melbourne twhatich has an image of Wurundjeri leader William Barak sculpted into its façade, this chapter creates a critical conceptual framework for planning in Indigenous Australia. The chapter examines, Ddrawing on key critical social theories, the chapter examines the key concepts of visibility, representation, recognition, power and the contested nature of space and place. The chapter explains how each of these concepts is crucial for the task of unpacking the complicity of planning in processes of colonial dispossession and reframing planning towards more hopeful transformative futures.