Hinduism as we understand it today has its roots in the soil of India some six thousand years ago. Some of the key concepts that became part of the presentday Hindu worldview can be traced back to the ideas first articulated in the hymns of the Vedas, the sacred literature of Hindus. However, views about nature, human beings, the divine, and the relationships among these have evolved since then. While one cannot claim that all Hindus subscribe to one coherent picture of their world and their place in it, it is possible to recognize a worldview that influences their lives in a general way and is the source of the inspiration by which they guide their lives. In the context of understanding the growth of scientific knowledge, it helps to know how a given culture perceives and organizes the world around it. The worldview of a people acts as a lens through which they examine their world, sometimes helping them with clear vision, sometimes distorting their perceptions, and many times inspiring them to act wisely and conduct themselves morally. How does scientific activity fit into the worldview and life of Hindus? To answer this question, we must first look at the basic elements of their worldview and then examine the history of the growth of their science.