Culture and Leadership
DOI link for Culture and Leadership
Culture and Leadership book
The implementation of public policy is one of the enduring frustrations of government. In a comprehensive overview of the subject in the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration, David J. Houston (1998) held that “implementation typically involves a wide range of actors with diverse interests and competing goals, including formal policymakers, bureaucratic ofﬁcials from all levels of government . . . , private sector organizations, nonproﬁt organizations, clientele groups, and other interested citizen groups” (p. 1093). Although he does include “planning, communicating, negotiating” among the “activities” of implementation, nowhere in his comprehensive review of the subject does he mention leadership or partnership per se. Rather, he describes comprehensive theories of policy implementation that involve many factors. Our ﬁrst premise is that leadership is an equally important activity, perhaps the most important part of the activity mix.