Management education in Africa at all levels has been characterized mainly by classroom teaching and learning (Safavi, 1981; Abdulai, 2014). The curriculum used has been based on colonial educational systems and models (Safavi, 1981). These models have been found to be inadequate for African culture and development (Hanson, 1971; Abdulai, 2014) as they do not accommodate the peculiarities of the African socio-cultural context and values (Kiggundu, 1991; Beugré, 2015). As Beugré (2015) explained,

There is no doubt that management theories and techniques developed in the West or elsewhere cannot be applied to Africa, without considering the economic, technological, and, most importantly, social and cultural factors, specific to the continent (p. 1).