This chapter outlines psychological, motivational, and contextual factors associated with Black student achievement in predominantly White universities, particularly in STEM fields. It explores a risk and resilience approach in considering within-group variation in motivation and persistence. The chapter describes Black students' normative experience of racial stigma on campus as a risk factor for decreases in academic identification and subsequent motivation and achievement, as well as the unique ways stigma may emerge within STEM contexts. It considers person-level characteristics including those related to students' racial and gender identities that may serve to promote academic identification and motivation and help students maintain strong academic identity in the face of stigmatizing experiences. The chapter also considers how context-level characteristics including institutional resources, opportunities, barriers, or constraints relate to students' motivation and achievement in the face of stigma experiences. It also outlines a conceptual model describing Black college student achievement in STEM fields.