The challenges and obstacles facing foster care alumni have been closely examined in a number of rigorous studies in recent years. This chapter looks specifically at the role that sexual orientation and gender identity play in experiences of youth emancipating from foster care. Using data from the Multi-Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs, the researchers compared the victimization experiences, child welfare experiences, as well as the functional outcomes (education, employment, economic well-being, and homelessness) of youth preparing to emancipate from foster care. In addition, sexual minority youth reported experiencing more placement disruptions than heterosexual youth. The functional outcomes of sexual minority youth emancipating from foster care in the current study varied significantly from those of heterosexual youth in a number of domains. Two findings from this study provide strong evidence of the need for child welfare professionals to better prepare LGBTQ youth for independence.