This article analyses Russia’s response and policy towards China in the Arctic andwhat type of partnership Moscow is pursuing. China is an increasingly active player in the Arctic, with resource investments in several Arctic states, strong interest in utilising the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and a fast developing research agenda on climate change, including a research station on Svalbard and voyages to the region by the research vessel Snow Dragon.1 Russia was initially reluctant to accept China as a permanent observer in the Arctic Council, but changed its stand at the Kiruna meeting in 2013. Russia has demonstrated through its Arctic strategies of 2008 and 2013 that developing the Arctic is a national priority, with the focus being on resource development, ensuring security and stability, developing the NSR and sustainable development.2 Through its geopolitical importance and Arctic policies, Russia is a gatekeeper for China and other Asian countries seeking a larger role in Arctic affairs. China’s growing interest and Russia’s main role in the Arctic make it of paramount importance to study their relationship. If Russia’s approach towards China were to become strategic, it would mean increased Chinese investments, activity and interest in the Russian Arctic. On the other hand, if Moscow’s approach remains pragmatic, no special treatment would be given to Chinese actors in the Russian Arctic. Relations with Russia are vital for the other states with interests in the Arctic; what SinoRussian co-operation in the Arctic should they be prepared for?