The voltage-amplifier stage (VAS) has often been regarded as the most critical part of a power-amplifier. A well-designed voltage amplifier stage will contribute relatively little to the overall distortion total of an amplifier, and if even the simplest steps are taken to linearise it further, its contribution sinks out of sight. Voltage amplifier stage distortion arises from a curved transfer characteristic of the common-emitter amplifier, a small portion of an exponential. This characteristic generates predominantly second-harmonic distortion, which, in a closed-loop amplifier, will increase at 6 dB/octave with frequency. The local open-loop gain of the VAS should be high, so that the voltage amplifier stage can be line-arised. The fundamentals of linear voltage amplifier stage operation require that the collector impedance is high, and not subject to external perturbations. Thus a Class-B output stage, with large input impedance variations around the crossover point, is the worst possible load.