In this chapter, I discuss approaches to syntactic variation, especially in the context of Arabic varieties. The starting point is a realization that syntactic variation has only recently become a focus of research in linguistics. The reasons for this are also discussed: some are related to methodological constraints in carrying out research on social variation in the domain of syntax; others trace developments within Arabic linguistics. Recently, approaches to syntactic variation have attempted to integrate the study of grammatical (types of) variation with social variation, but none of these models have been applied to Arabic. Finally, I examine studies of negation and resumption that also deal with grammatical variation across Arabic, and pave the way for an integrated approach to syntactic variation in Arabic, which calls for more collaboration across disciplinary boundaries.