This chapter considers the extent to which the field of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language (TAFL) has evolved in line with developments in Arabic sociolinguistics, where the notion of Standard Arabic as the original or default variety of the language has long been abandoned. In the recent past, many learners of Arabic primarily desired reading fluency for graduate study, whereas a larger number of students now study Arabic for communication. This change in student priorities has led to the integration of Arabic dialects into the curricula of many Arabic programs, but this has not occurred without considerable controversy and debate. The chapter argues that if an Arabic program ultimately aims to graduate learners who can operate effectively within the linguistic reality of the Arab world, it should not privilege Modern Standard Arabic, or a dialect, but should instead prepare students to interact in a way that mirrors native speaker norms, matching language register and context.