Peru is distinguished by the dual nature of the transition that took place in 2000: a transition from the internal armed conflict that had gripped the country since 1980, and a transition from authoritarian rule (1992-2000). This twofold process has created challenges as well as opportunities for an accountability and human rights agenda. Peru has made some noteworthy advances, including the Fujimori trials, an exemplary truth commission, and a widely recognised collective reparations programme. Yet proponents of greater accountability still come up against daunting obstacles on a daily basis. Above all, the legacies of the armed conflict and the authoritarian regime continue to shape contemporary politics and institutions. Political supporters of former president Alberto Fujimori are the second-largest group in the Peruvian Congress, while guerrilla cells of the Maoist Sendero Luminoso still carry out sporadic actions in the eastern highlands, ensuring that Peruvians do not take peace for granted. The human rights agenda remains actively contested in the Peruvian political arena and in public debate.