Most of the institutional planning systems and approaches used in countries are based on land use and zoning plans. 'Change and innovation', also on the spatial level, is often strongly influenced by the global social, political, and technological context, which defines the boundaries and the potential for planning. In the 1960s already, the population was clamouring for involvement in planning and decision making. 'May '68' is a symbol of this during this period. Involving citizens and civil society in policy-making and the implementation thereof is not common practice in most countries. Increasingly professional citizen's movements that garner widespread support are emerging, alongside the institutional, social organisation. Between 2010 and 2012, Bernd Scholl brought academics and practitioners together to reflect on the core principles of the discipline and the education of planners/urbanists. This chapter provides four fields of required knowledge and skill: the integration of various types of knowledge, design, reasoning or argumentation, and communication and charisma.