This chapter presents a key distinction made between the technological and human infrastructures. During the 1970s, a major concern was with how and where information technology could act as a cost-effective substitute for face-to-face communication. At this beginning stage there was no attempt to establish that information technology could achieve better communication results; the concern was only with the possibility of economically efficient replacement of human communicative activities. Two types of substitution were considered: process and function. The introduction of information technology appears to be most successful when it is at least accompanied by the planned management of its meaning in the workplace. For communication to occur, a communicative intent must be inferred in the information being read. The communication process incorporates more than one reader and this adds complexity to the meaning generation process. The chapter finally argues that the management of meaning is central to managing information technology within organizations.