Pagan metal arose from diverse strands of the metal meta-genre, and was initiated by bands spread across Europe’s northern tier – from Ireland to Finland – at the start of the last decade of the twentieth century. It is not characterized by a cohesive musical style. Sonically, Pagan metal draws from a wide variety of metal styles, typically incorporating additional features of pre-modern instrumentation, rhythms and melodies. Textual elements, from the specic Pagan references in lyrics to the language in which they are expressed, also diverge widely.