This chapter reviews the governance of water in South Asia with a focus on the paradigm shifts, decentralization and participation in water governance mediated by the international financial institutions and donor agencies. It discusses the evolution of the conventional state-led water governance, which is a colonial legacy of water management by command and control of the State with a thrust on "productive" use of water. The chapter examines both the conventional water governance in South Asia and certain suggested alternatives. It reviews the paradigm shifts in water governance starting with the triggers of shift, new reigning principles in the current strategies, programmatic interventions in key sub sectors like irrigation and drinking water. The chapter describes the civil society briefly along with the responses to the changes in water governance. It also presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.