This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book outlines the debates around the implementation of integrated water resources management in South Asia. It presents the irrigation sector in Nepal where there has been a change from decentralized to centralized water management with the state intervention in 1920s. The book argues that although the agenda of gender water equity was included in water policies and plans in the 1990s, the content of water policy and its implementation have been limited to making women visi-ble in water committees. It focuses on the need to address these issues. The book shows that despite reforms having been carried out in the province, women have never been consulted during the conception, planning, design, or implementation of any PIM program although evidence shows that women do use irrigation water for both productive as well as domestic purposes.