This chapter deals with one type of water conflict, namely, contending water uses and users. It discusses the immediate context of the status of water resources in India. The chapter explores the contentions over water use within an overall typology of water conflicts. It argues for an integrated approach to contending water uses and attempts to outline a normative framework to deal with issues like equity, integration of local and exogenous water, surface and groundwater, variable and assured water, water rights, allocations, and transfers and related issues. The chapter discusses some of the critical issues related to the legal and regulatory frameworks with regard to water, rights, regulation and globalization, and the interconnectedness of law and policy in the water sector. The unfolding scenario for water use in many parts of the world is one of increasing concern about access, equity and the response to growing needs.