Catholicism is the dominant religion of the Spanish state1 – and in Catalonia, too. Majority and minority nations are not separated by religion. Nationalism cannot be argued to be the sublimation of a religious cleavage. In the case of Catalonia, however, less religious practice and higher percentages of atheists and agnostics can be found. These differences are neither reason nor consequence of the national problem. But demands like those for a Catalan Episcopal Conference and their rejection by the Spanish bishops are clearly linked to it.