This chapter focusses on the role of religious pluralism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It explores the relationship between nationalism, religion and territoriality. Bosnia is a relatively young country. It only became a sovereign state in April 1992. The war between 1992 and 1995 was as much about the nature of the country Bosnia and Herzegovina as it was about the relationship of the three main religious/national groups to this country as well as to each other. Once peace was established in Bosnia, it's politicians were asked to implement the Dayton Peace Agreement, particularly focusing on the human rights provisions and enabling economic development. While religion is the main national marker, the ethnic identities in Bosnia should also be seen independently from their religious connotations. Federalism has been used as an appropriate concept to address the on-going nation-building projects amongst the main Bosnian peoples. Bosnia has become a country in which different territorial units are mono-ethnic.