The discipline of architecture involves many things. Architecture is both art and science, the issues faced are both aesthetic and practical, and problem-solving is rooted in both convention and innovation. While the widespread sustainability movement has increased awareness about environmental issues in design, the universal design (UD) movement has advanced awareness about human diversity in design. Universal design has benefited from the confluence of more potent scientific research, an increased value in social justice, and striking demographic trends. Designers utilizing a UD paradigm strive for ethical-aesthetic sensibilities of justness and satisfaction, or at least seek to reduce the likelihood of occupants feeling a sense of isolation, segregation, or discrimination. Ergonomics and usability play a role; building performance and efficiency play a role; continuity and integration play a role. UD parallels phenomenology, a philosophical approach and social science technique that sought to bridge the gap between positivism and constructivism. Phenomenology had a tremendous impact on architectural education, criticism, and design.