Introduction Gang activity and violence remain a pressing issue for US policymakers. Recent analyses of 15-year trends in the prevalence of gangs in middle to large US cities reveal that the presence of gang activity remains unchanged in over two-thirds of those jurisdictions

(Howell et al. 2011). These scholars note that in 70% of cities with populations of 100,000 or more, the proportion of homicides related to gangs ranges between 20% and 40%.