Risk factors for general delinquency have been examined in numerous studies, but fewer studies have sought to identify factors specifically related to youth violence and an even smaller number of studies have focused upon youths' gang involvement. Data analyzed in this study were collected as part of the second National Evaluation of (GREAT) Gang Resistance Education and Training, a longitudinal panel study that took place in seven cities across the USA. There are 10 total measures of individual risk factors tap aspects of self-control theory and social learning theory. Unique risk factors for violence involvement were school disorder, a greater number of hours spent in unsupervised socializing with peers, and impulsivity. Finally, bivariate logistic regressions predicting first-time gang and violence involvement are conducted separately by sex. As with gang involvement, in order to ensure correct temporal ordering of risk factors and behavior, we created our violent offending measure to exclude those who reported engaging in violence prior to Wave.