This chapter shows the philosophical importance of dietary pluralism (DP) by identifying its main features and the challenges it raises for political institutions. It reviews the perspective of liberal political philosophy. This decision is motivated in consideration of the many studies of different kinds of pluralism in this area. The chapter illustrates normative relevance for public institutions: the case of ritual animal slaughter and that concerning the presence of a vegetarian option in public canteens. Religious belief is one of the paramount expressions of someone's conscience as the locus of moral and existential claims, but it is by no means the only one. This applies to any conscientious demand, regardless of whether it originates from religion, culture, or individual ethical beliefs. It concerns the request for a vegetarian option in public canteens on the basis of moral and/or religious convictions. Jewish and Muslim ritual methods of slaughtering provide that animals be slaughtered with a knife without previous stunning.