This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book presents a compelling model in which school climate facilitates the development of students’ social identification, at least with the school itself. It examines the complexity of the normative content of social identifications among medical students. Among many processes, these authors considered data that show that, under certain circumstances, the normative content of the medical student social identity is relatively negative. The book presents the completion of a historical cycle in the analysis of learning and education. It seeks to bridge real and apparent theoretical chasms through an analysis of the construction of teachers’ identities. The self is a concept that pervades the education literature. Self and learning are with self often understood as the outcome of learning but also as an antecedent to learning.