The female pioneers experienced the frustration of the extreme gender discrimination that was a feature of time and place for them all. Overall, it is clear that the time and place in which the pioneers operated - Western Europe and Europe-influenced America from the early nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century - created very different roles for men and women, and that all of the pioneers were heavily influenced by their milieu. All of the pioneers would have been horrified at the current state of affairs in which the education and care of young children in the two most prominent Anglophone nations in the world is immersed. Despite ongoing accomplishments in technology and ever-expanding pathways to knowledge, schools everywhere remain dissatisfied with their underpinning educational systems and the results of new and ever-changing pedagogies. Montessori and Pestalozzi both experienced the intrusion of political manipulation into their attempts to create a pedagogical method to instill concepts of democracy.