This chapter focuses on Maria Montessori, the first female doctor of medicine in Italy, who later became a pioneering educator. It considers the influences of her early life and education, exploring the subsequent success of her pedagogical method, which included multiple nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, first in 1949, again in 1950 and then posthumously in 1951. The chapter explores Montessori's scientific pedagogical approach to early childhood education, focusing on her project with the 'Children's House' and her application of this pedagogical regime to children with additional learning needs, following her journey from medical practice to teaching. It also considers the impact of Montessori's theories on contemporary practice, both in terms of teacher training in Montessori methods and their implementation in Montessori schools. Montessori's independence of mind and spirit served her well during her university medical training, where she was continuously exposed to discrimination.