This chapter examines how inclusion and achievement, and related concepts, were understood and used by a range of members in each school and the consequences of those different meanings and applications. It explores the underlying values and beliefs embedded in the cultures of each school, set within their broader national contexts, so as to identify existing and potential strategies to support achievement and inclusion in other schools. The Framework is concerned with the participation of all members of a school. The chapter outlines some principles underpinning the conceptualisation of participation in the framework. The purpose of the framework for participation is to explore the complexities of the educational experiences of individual and groups of children and young people and staff, as well as across whole classes, schools and beyond. The purpose is also to identify existing and potential strategies which are effective in raising achievement and inclusion, as well as those which may reduce barriers to achievement and inclusion.