Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is by design multidisciplinary. To provide the most authentic STEM learning environment, instruction should be delivered in an integrated fashion with concepts from across these disciplines infused throughout lessons focused on 21st century skills and themes to address real-world challenges (Johnson, 2013). Assessments of STEM learning, as a result, must align with this instructional approach to elicit valid indicators of student STEM competencies. To assess STEM learning effectively, teachers must adopt and develop a comprehensive assessment system where students are given multiple opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge through varied types of assessments (National Research Council, 2014). Further, assessment data must then be used to inform STEM instructional decision-making which allows for greater student learning to occur (Black & William, 2001; Sondergeld, Bell, & Leusner, 2010).