This chapter discusses the limitations of its traditional views to offer an account of the nature and consequences of inequality for world politics and try to suggest alternative perspectives that consider inequality as a formative feature of the international system. It deals with an analysis of inequality in the context of the debate on dependency and autonomy in the global South and then introduce more contributions of critical theories about the role of neoliberal disciplinary reason in the reproduction of inequalities. The chapter explores how decolonial contributions to contemporary International Relations scholarship in the global South offer a productive alternative to meaningfully articulate the international and global dimensions of inequality through the introduction of coloniality as a central conceptual device. International inequality refers to asymmetries of power and wealth between states. In classical theories, inequality is an intrinsic quality of the international system.