This chapter introduces the legal context in which religious education (RE) takes place, not only according to the letter of the law but in the sometimes complex ways that accepted practice departs from the law. It explores the different kinds of schooling in England, different arrangements in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the various influences on policy in these contexts. The chapter discusses some of the differences between religious education in different types of schools in the United Kingdom (UK) state system. It explores the role played by different organisations in setting and implementing religious education policy. The chapter focuses on awareness of some of the contemporary debates and challenges in religious education. The place of RE in the curriculum is dependent on legislation, faith groups, local organisations, professional networks, inspectors and examiners.